“Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle” - Often attributed to Plato but likely from Ian McLaren (pseudonym of Reverend John Watson)

## Monday, August 18, 2008

### Forces on my LR3 at 56 m.p.h.

There happens to be a hill of, as near as I can tell, constant slope on my commute to work on which I can put my car in neutral and coast down at about an unaccelerated 56 m.p.h. Obviously, the calculations herein will be approximate, these are hardly tightly controlled conditions. But using Google Earth, I can find that in a run of 563 feet, I descend from an elevation of 161.5 feet to 144.5 feet. Assuming that my loaded Land Rover LR3 weighs 5900 pounds force ("lbf"), I can use trigonometry to determine the component of the gravitational force acting to accelerate the truck down this hill. That will give me another estimation of the sum of the external forces acting on my truck, that is, its rolling resistance plus aerodynamic drag.

The calculation is sin(arctan((161.5-144.5)/563))*5900 lbf = Fr where Fr is the total is the total resisting force on the car. Of course, at such a small angle, the sine, the tangent, and the angle itself (in radians) are approximately equal, so what we have is (17/563)*5900 lbf. Thus, the downward component of gravity acting on my car and the total resisting force are each about 178 lbf or 792 Nt (Newtons). Startlingly, my calculations using .5*Cd*rho^2*A*v^2+Crr*m*g (see here) found 743 Nt. Now, this was at 55 m.p.h. rather than 56 m.p.h. and used what I have since determined is likely to be a very slightly low number for air density. Plugging in the appropriate numbers, I get 783 Nt, within 1.1% of the number calculated by determining the component of gravitational force acting parallel to the roadway above. As I've mentioned before, I just love it when different approaches to the same problem yield similar (or almost identical) answers.

So what does it mean? Well, it certainly means I'm on the right track in making calculations based on the resisting forces. I like this because I've made many deductions on that basis. The calculations are fairly limited to the case of analyzing the vehicle as the system and "outside the vehicle" as the environment, that is, the truck is a "black box." This is the case because there's no calculation of the forces involved in the many rotating masses in the vehicle, etc., or of the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine. But it clearly shows that the calculation of the external forces has been accurately performed, and thus the previous two posts are reasonable estimations of what it would take to create a very high mileage vehicle. Oh, and the slope? 1.7 degrees.